New Articles Published (2018)


Émilie Guitard (2018). «Between Municipal Management and Sorcery Uses of Waste», Cahiers d’études africaines [En ligne], 231-232 | URL : http://journals.openedition.org/etudesafricaines/23453

Abstract

Many city-dwellers from Garoua and Maroua, northern part of Cameroon, identify bodily excretions and discarded intimate items as tools for an instrumental sorcery, based on a continuity seen as irreducible with the body and what is rejected from it. Facing with these sorcery uses of waste, the public authorities’ position inherits from older conceptions of great accumulations of waste, seen as gathering ambivalent and versatile “forces” that can be harnessed by powerful individuals for purposes of domination and increase in wealth. Far from questioning these conceptions, the initiatives taken in 2008 by the authorities to manage garbage collection and street cleaning in both cities, with the help of a private company, induces rather a renewal of this sorcery of refuse.


Michelle T Kuenzi, Gina M S Lambright (2018). Decentralization, Executive Selection, and Citizen Views on the Quality of Local Governance in African Countries, Publius: The Journal of Federalism, , pjy031, https://doi.org/10.1093/publius/pjy031

Abstract

Do institutions influence the quality of local governance in Africa? We examine determinants of citizens’ perceptions of the quality of local government using Afrobarometer survey data for twenty-six sub-Saharan African countries and country-level variables. We find that the method of selecting chief executives is a significant factor in citizen evaluations of local governance. Citizens tend to view local governments as less responsive when the chief executive is directly elected. They also perceive the performance and probity of local government more negatively when the chief executive is appointed by the national government. Greater expenditure control is a double-edged sword. Citizens in areas with greater local control over public expenditures perceive local officials to be more responsive, yet also more corrupt. Citizens in areas with greater administrative decentralization tend to view corruption as less widespread. These results suggest that the direct election of local executives is not a panacea and the capacity of local governments should be considered before decentralization is deepened.


Buyana, K., Byarugaba, D., Sseviiri, H. et al. (2018). Experimentation in an African Neighborhood: Reflections for Transitions to Sustainable Energy in Cities. Urban Forum (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12132-018-9358-z

Abstract

Studies on transitions to sustainable energy in cities point to different types of experimentation including niche experiments, bounded socio-technical experiments, transition experiments and grassroots experiments. This paper argues that experimentation in African cities cannot be definitively framed into such types because each case harbors a unique perspective with implications for how it is understood conceptually. This is based on a transdisciplinary inquiry into waste to energy pilots in an informal neighborhood of Kampala city, which demonstrated how a network of community actors overcome not only energy but also health and poverty-related challenges, through recycling waste materials for production of energy briquettes. Their experimentation is majorly driven by the following: (i) the desire to overcome confinement to services regulated by government and (ii) promoting alternative sources of cooking energy that stem from locally available technologies. Overall, the case study points to how transitions to sustainable energy in cities can start in experimentation at neighborhood scale, using alternative cooking energy solutions as the anchorage.


Oussama A. Hadadi & Shin Lee (2018) The climate change mitigation potential of Algiers URT through mode shift from the car to rail – assessing CO2 emissions reductions on the basis of savings in fuel consumption, International Planning Studies, DOI: 10.1080/13563475.2018.1535960

Abstract

This paper attempts to assess the potential of a transport policy to mitigate climate change by assessing the impacts of urban rail transit (URT) investments on travel mode choice and carbon dioxide emission reductions in Algiers, the capital city of Algeria. The objectives are: (1) to assess the extent of travel mode change from private automobiles to rail for commuting trips as an effect of the URT operation; (2) to identify complementary measures which might be adopted to enhance the effect of the URT; and (3) to quantify the CO2 emission reductions on the basis of the fuel saved per person as a result of the travel mode change that occurred, following the IPCC guideline methodologies. A questionnaire survey of the URT users was conducted to observe the behavioural changes. Positive effects of rail projects in terms of attracting car users to the new travel modes have been evidenced, resulting in a significant extent of carbon emission reductions, which signifies a contribution to sustainable urban mobility and climate change mitigation. The findings also show reinforcing effects of both fuel price increases and parking restrictions on mitigating transport-related carbon emissions.


Michelle T Kuenzi, Gina M S Lambright (2018). Decentralization, Executive Selection, and Citizen Views on the Quality of Local Governance in African Countries, Publius: The Journal of Federalism, , pjy031, https://doi.org/10.1093/publius/pjy031

Abstract

Do institutions influence the quality of local governance in Africa? We examine determinants of citizens’ perceptions of the quality of local government using Afrobarometer survey data for twenty-six sub-Saharan African countries and country-level variables. We find that the method of selecting chief executives is a significant factor in citizen evaluations of local governance. Citizens tend to view local governments as less responsive when the chief executive is directly elected. They also perceive the performance and probity of local government more negatively when the chief executive is appointed by the national government. Greater expenditure control is a double-edged sword. Citizens in areas with greater local control over public expenditures perceive local officials to be more responsive, yet also more corrupt. Citizens in areas with greater administrative decentralization tend to view corruption as less widespread. These results suggest that the direct election of local executives is not a panacea and the capacity of local governments should be considered before decentralization is deepened.


Re-Imagining African Cities. The Arts and Urban Politics (Guest editors: Fiona Siegenthaler and Till Förster)

Till Förster & Fiona Siegenthaler (2018) Introduction: Re-Imagining Cities in Africa, Social Dynamics, 44:3, 395-404, DOI: 10.1080/02533952.2018.1512938

Abstract

The introduction presents the key concepts and core arguments of this special issue Re-Imagining African Cities: The Arts and Urban Politics that results from a workshop hosted by the Visual Culture Research Group at the Department of Anthropology, University of Basel, in 2016. Summarising and presenting the essays, it offers insights into how urban imagination and the physical cities interrelate in urban aesthetic practices. How do artists articulate their experiences and observations of the city? What position and relevance do the material city, the city image and the urban imagination have in the practice of these visual and performing artists? How does their work relate to the urban as a social space on the one hand and as an imagined entity on the other? The African and diasporic cities of Kinshasa, Paris, Cape Town, Lagos, Bamenda, Freetown, Johannesburg and Kampala are both the sites and research subjects of the authors and of the artists they present. The focus on visual and performative arts provides the vehicle and the critical means of observing, articulating and representing these entanglements of the material cities, their images and their societal as well as artistic imagination.


New Articles Published (2019)


Murtah Shannon (2019). “African Urban Development in a Post-Aid Era: The ‘Dutch Approach’ to Urban Restructuring in Beira City, Mozambique,” Built Environment 44, 4 (January 2019): 397-419, special issue on urban land grabs in Africa, https://www.alexandrinepress.co.uk/built-environment/urban-land-grabs-africa

Abstract

A new era of African urban development is emerging at a time when global aid regimes are undergoing fundamental shifts, becoming increasingly competitive and centred on donor 'value for money'. For aid-dependent countries in Africa, these shifts are likely to have an influence on the priorities and interests associated with urban development. So far, however, their implications remain unexplored within this context. Taking this research agenda as a starting point, this article presents in-depth empirical research on a novel country/city modality established between the Netherlands and Beira City, Mozambique, known as the Beira Partnership. By means of a new masterplan and numerous follow-up projects this partnership represents an unprecedented effort at restructuring Beira City, while securing Dutch interests in the process. By unpacking the various interests and initiatives associated with this partnership, the article demonstrates how it represents an eff ort to institutionalize new claims to Beira's urban land which is fundamentally at odds with certain pre-existing land claims of the urban poor. With many similarities to exploitative developments observed elsewhere in Africa, the article demonstrates how the Beira Partnership cannot be explained as an encroachment of global capital but instead as a decidedly trans-local initiative aimed at securing Dutch influence abroad. The findings point to a distinctly geopolitical agenda which has largely alluded contemporary debate which is likely to become more pronounced as urban development continues to gain momentum.


Kei Otsuki (2019). “Who is ‘the Public’: Infrastructure of Displacement and Urban Resettlement in Mozambique,” Built Environment 44, 4 (January 2019): 493-508, special issue on urban land grabs in Africa, https://www.alexandrinepress.co.uk/built-environment/urban-land-grabs-africa

Abstract

This paper explores possibilities of inclusive urban development by examining the relationships between physical infrastructure, displacement and resettlement. It pays particular attention to the notions of 'development' and 'the public'. Infrastructure as public works often justifies the displacement of people for the sake of the wider population's 'development'. It can also serve to benefit the displaced people if it includes them in the 'public' that participates in the 'development', especially in the form of ensuring a sound resettlement experience. The question is: how can this inclusion be envisioned and practised? To answer this question, this paper examines recent experiences of development-induced displacement and resettlement in Mozambique by using two examples: the Maputo?KaTembe bridge and its resettlement programme, as debated at the recent National Conference on Resettlement and in published sources, and the resettlement programme of the Limpopo National Park, based on primary field research. The paper analyses these resettlement experiences through three major accounts of infrastructure centred on state-building and formalization, co-production and heterogeneity, and open source and sharing urbanism. The paper argues that recognizing the heterogeneity and sharing aspects of infrastructure development in the post-resettlement context is key to reconstituting the public and promoting inclusive urban development in the major infrastructure development that accompanies displacement and resettlement.


Fält, Lena (2019). New Cities and the Emergence of 'Privatized Urbanism' in Ghana. Built Environment, Volume 44, Number 4, January 2019, pp. 438-460(23)

Abstract

New cities are increasingly presented as a solution to contemporary challenges of rapidly urbanizing African cities. A growing body of research has, however, questioned the appropriateness of these megaprojects on the basis of their governance structures, underlying planning principles and target groups. Yet little is known about the local constellations of government that enable and/or hinder these megaprojects to materialize. Drawing on the notion of governmentality, this paper seeks to deepen our knowledge about how particular new cities in Africa are governed and the rationalities behind them. Through an in-depth case study of Appolonia City ? a new private satellite city under construction outside Accra, Ghana ? the paper demonstrates how this example of privatized urbanism has reached its recent stage of implementation through a speci fic constellation of government that includes state actors at all levels, traditional authorities and private developers. The engagement of these actors is based upon multiple rationalities, including an advanced liberal rationality that emphasizes the superiority of private-led urban development; spatial rationalities that seek to form 'world-class' environments and subjects through a strong emphasis on urban formality and ordered aesthetics; prospects of economic pro fit-making; and assumptions on how the 'mixed city' model can provide sustainable and inclusive urban milieus. These rationalities partly conflict and Appolonia risks becoming yet another elitist urban megaproject despite its stated aim of creating a sustainable and inclusive urban environment. There is thus an urgent need to (re-)politicize the urban question in Africa in order to enable future city developments that benefit the many and not the few.


Cristina Udelsmann Rodrigues (2019). Climate Change and DIY Urbanism in Luanda and Maputo: New Urban Strategies?, International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development (2019) (Published online: 04 Mar 2019)

Abstract

Climate-related phenomena historically have had an impact on the lives of urban dwellers of Luanda and Maputo. Recently, however, urban expansion and congestion of different sorts, aggravated by climate change impacts, call for renewed responses on the part of residents. Rising sea levels and harder impacts of flooding are the most disturbing issues in the two coastal capitals, demanding both institutional responses and strategies of urban residents, particularly the most vulnerable. Based on qualitative data collected in Luanda and Maputo, this article describes how urban residents aim to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change and by doing so, shape the cities they live in and their environment.


Alice Nikuze, Richard Sliuzas, Johannes Flacke, Martin van Maarseveen (2019). Livelihood impacts of displacement and resettlement on informal households - A case study from Kigali, Rwanda, Habitat International, Volume 86, Pages 38-47

Abstract

Cities in Sub-Saharan Africa are undergoing massive socio-spatial transformations. Many old inner-city neighbourhoods are being demolished to give way to modern commercial and residential developments, and generally, to a more modern living environment. These ambitions often lead to manifold displacement and resettlement projects that affect the livelihoods of millions of people, including many from informal settlements. Given the novelty of urban space transformations in Sub-Saharan African countries, empirical research on the impacts on affected urban households is rare. Based on research conducted in Kigali, Rwanda, this paper discusses livelihood impacts, of urban redevelopment and disaster risk mitigation induced resettlement projects, on affected informal settlement households. This contribution draws on interviews and focus group discussions undertaken with both households to be displaced and resettled households, as well as interviews with key informants during fieldwork. The findings highlight that, irrespective of potential opportunities of resettlement projects to deliver improved housing to poor informal households, most displaced informal households in Kigali endure several adverse impacts on their physical, financial, social, and human livelihood assets. While previous studies narrowed displacement impacts to post-relocation impacts, this research shows that affected informal households also endure significant adverse livelihood impacts in the pre-relocation stage. Uncertainties during the pre-relocation phase are significant causes of impoverishment risks among the households likely to be displaced. Accurate and detailed information of the resettlement projects need to be communicated in the early stage of the process to avoid the unnecessary impoverishment risks of affected households. Clear transparent guidelines on entitlements and compensation for each displacement type need to be disclosed and discussed with affected communities. We conclude that an understanding of livelihood impacts in both the pre- and post-relocation stages offers a holistic conceptualisation, which is required to mitigate impoverishment risks and to protect and improve the livelihoods of affected households throughout the entire relocation process.

Keywords: Urban development; Disaster risk; Induced displacement; Resettlement; Livelihood impacts; Informal settlements; Master plan; Kigali

Download full text (pdf): https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0197397518309330/pdfft?md5=340281f5caa8b4a3bb9c06a511607a1a&pid=1-s2.0-S0197397518309330-main.pdf&isDTMRedir=true&download=true


Urban Land Grabs in Africa?

Built Environment, Volume 44 – Number 4, 2019

https://www.alexandrinepress.co.uk/built-environment/urban-land-grabs-africa


Stefania Almazán-Casali, Jose F. Alfaro, Steve Sikra (2019). Exploring household willingness to participate in solid waste collection services in Liberia, Habitat International, 2019, ISSN 0197-3975

Abstract

Liberia faces increasing challenges with solid waste management as more than 70% of households abandon their waste in unauthorized sites. Urbanization and population growth will increase Liberia's need to develop an effective waste management system. This study performed 240 household surveys in Paynesville, Liberia, to explore residents' waste disposal practices and their satisfaction with waste collection services. Survey results point to improvement opportunities and some dissatisfaction with existing household services. Burning or burying of waste were common disposal practices and few households separate or recycle waste. The study included a choice experiment (CE) to assess households' valuation of specific attributes of waste collection services. Estimates of a mixed logistical model suggest that households highly value having waste collected at home and negatively value separating waste. These findings highlight the potential for improving Liberia's solid waste management by structuring reliable services around household collection.


Martin Oteng-Ababio, Richard Grant (2019). Ideological traces in Ghana's urban plans: How do traces get worked out in the Agbogbloshie, Accra?, Habitat International, Volume 83, 2019, Pages 1-10, ISSN 0197-3975

Abstract:

Neoliberalism, rights to the city, and sustainable development are systems of ideas competing for the attention of policymakers and citizens worldwide. Analyzing Ghana's key urban reports, we produce a heat map of the intensity and fragility of ideas concerning the urban poor. We employ the Agbogbloshie informal settlement as a case study to explore conflicts among diverse planning goals: urban entrepreneurialism, environmental protection, formalization of parts of the informal economy, the reframing of citizenship, and settlement upgrading. Decongestion exercises, shack demolitions, and threats of relocation are strategies employed to restore order, but the settlement's regeneration is beset by transience and piecemeal actions. We introduce hypocrisy as a theoretical analytical perspective to call into question pro-poor urban planning interventions as a way of responding to continuous ambivalent planning measures and framing. Hypocrisy prompts an alternative focus on inconsistencies and contradictions in the planning system.

Keywords: Neoliberalism; Rights to the city; Sustainable development; Informal settlement; Agbogbloshie; Accra

Download full text (pdf): https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0197397518305903/pdfft?md5=604eb9f927d02a33cedff5456106df28&pid=1-s2.0-S0197397518305903-main.pdf


Doris Wieser and Ana Filipa Prata (eds.). (2019). Cities of the Lusophone World. Literature, Culture and Urban Transformations. Oxford and New York: Peter Lang

(ISBN: 978-1-78874-253-5) DOI: https://doi.org/10.3726/b13189

Cities of the Lusophone World addresses diverse literary and cultural representations of urban settings produced in the period from the 1960s to the present day and originating from the Island of Mozambique, Lisbon, Luanda, Macau, Maputo, Porto Alegre and São Paulo. The volume contributes to the interdisciplinary research field of urban cultural studies, which lies at the crossroads between the social sciences and the humanities. The essays gathered here consider the city not only as a geographical configuration, but also as a historical discourse where space and time merge and where different individual and collective practices and actions take place. They explore how memories and identities are framed, how people at the margins create discourses of resistance, and how processes of migration and urban transformation disrupt established social and cultural borders.


Amine Kasmi (2019) The plan as a colonization project: the medina of Tlemcen under French rule, 1842–1920, Planning Perspectives, 34:1, 25-42, DOI: 10.1080/02665433.2017.1361335

Abstract

In the nineteenth century, Algerian cities were the first medinas in the Arab world to be colonized by a European power. Tlemcen, a medieval medina involved in this historical event, was marked by a relentless struggle on the part of the French administration to transform it into a city conforming to modern standards. The antagonism between two urban systems – the ‘Islamic city’ and the modern city – takes a problematic form when confronted with urban interventions that had colonizing aims. This paper will argue that the plan of the colonial city introduced a new order, subjecting the medieval medina within a set/subset relationship. Through urban subordination, the French military–civil administration used the plan layout as an instrument to control and dominate the medina of Tlemcen. In order to verify this hypothesis, a thorough study of documents dating from the early years of the French occupation was undertaken; thus, this paper is constructed as an urban study, based on a historico-morphological approach.


Patrick Brandful Cobbinah & Michael Addaney (2019). The Geography of Climate Change Adaptation in Urban Africa. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan

This book take a comprehensive look at several cases of climate change adaptation responses across various sectors and geographical areas in urban Africa and places them within a solid theoretical context. Each chapter is a state-of-the-art overview of a significant topic on climate change adaptation in urban Africa and is written by a leading expert in the field. In addition to the focus on the geography of urban adaptation to climate in Africa, this collection offers a broader perspective by blending the use of case studies and theory based research. It examines transformations in climate change adaptation in urban Africa and its future orientation from the perspectives of urban planners, political economists, environmentalists, ecologists, economists and geographers, thereby addressing the challenges facing African cities adaptation responses from all angles. Providing up-to-date and authoritative contributions covering the key aspects of climate change adaptation in urban Africa, this book will be of great interest to policymakers, practitioners, scholars and students of geography, urban development and management, environmental science and policy, disaster management, as well as those in the field of urban planning.

https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-030-04873-0


Jacob Rasmussen & Alex Wafer (2019) Documentary evidence: Navigating identity and credibility in Africa’s urban estuaries, African Studies, 78:1, 74-90, DOI: 10.1080/00020184.2018.1540528

Abstract

In this article we argue for closer intellectual attention to the intersection between the unstable materiality of urban spaces on the one hand, and anxieties about the materiality of official documents on the other. Based on initial evidence from two cities in Africa, namely Nairobi and Johannesburg, we have observed that official documents as material objects matters most in precisely those parts of the city where formal state and civil society institutions appears most absent, i.e. those marginal or estuarial urban spaces, characterised by precarity, informality and mobility, where the majority of African urban residents reside. This is because anxieties about credibility, legitimacy and belonging are most acute in precisely these grey spaces. Yet we argue that the preoccupation with the materiality of these documents does not only reflect broader anxieties about inclusion into or exclusion from the wider urban economy. Instead we suggest that the materiality of documents is more deeply implicated into the unstable material conditions which characterise these estuarial spaces. As these estuarial spaces manifest fluid and sometimes illegible forms of policing and social order, so the variable material qualities of documents simultaneously proffers or eschews the credibility of the bearer in particular situations. This ambiguous relationship to absolute status subverts the bio-political pretensions of contemporary institutions of government, but serves as a crucial tactical vocabulary in navigating the precarious and unstable materiality of the contemporary African city. While the evidence presented here is drawn from ethnographic research in two such ‘urban estuaries’, we suggest that these observations might resonate more broadly, and might open up new avenues for thinking about the relationship between the material and the bio-political in Africa.

download full text (pdf): https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00020184.2018.1540528?needAccess=true


A. M. Martin & P. M. Bezemer (2019) The concept and planning of public native housing estates in Nairobi/Kenya, 1918–1948, Planning Perspectives, DOI: 10.1080/02665433.2019.1602785 (Published online: 09 Apr 2019)

Abstract

Interwar public housing estates for native citizens in Sub-Sahara African cities, represent hybrids of global and local urban concepts, housing typologies and dwelling habits. The authors explain such hybrids via exploratory research note as a result of transmutation processes, marked by various (non)human actors. To categorize and compare them, Actor Network Theory (ANT) is applied and tested within an architecture historical framework. Nairobi/Kenya functions as pars pro toto with its Kariakor and Kaloleni estates as exemplary cases. Their different network-outcomes underpin the supposition that actor-oriented research can help to unravel a most essential, though neglected part of international town planning history.

Download full text (pdf): https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/02665433.2019.1602785?needAccess=true


Mary Njeri Kinyanjui (2019). African Markets and the Utu-buntu Business Model. A perspective on economic informality in Nairobi. South Africa: African Minds Publishers, 200 pp. (ISBN 9781928331780)

Abstract

The persistence of indigenous African markets in the context of a hostile or neglectful business and policy environment makes them worthy of analysis. An investigation of Afrocentric business ethics is long overdue. Attempting to understand the actions and efforts of informal traders and artisans from their own points of view, and analysing how they organise and get by, allows for viable approaches to be identified to integrate them into global urban models and cultures.

Using the utu-ubuntu model to understand the activities of traders and artisans in Nairobi’s markets, this book explores how, despite being consistently excluded and disadvantaged, they shape urban spaces in and around the city, and contribute to its development as a whole. With immense resilience, and without discarding their own socio-cultural or economic values, informal traders and artisans have created a territorial complex that can be described as the African metropolis.

African Markets and the Utu-buntu Business Model sheds light on the ethics and values that underpin the work of traders and artisans in Nairobi, as well as their resilience and positive impact on urbanisation. This book makes an important contribution to the discourse on urban economics and planning in African cities.


Gauteng City-Region Observatory (GCRO) Research Report #10: Social Cohesion in Gauteng.
Authors: Richard Ballard, Christian Hamann, Kate Joseph, Thembani Mkhize

Download report: https://gcro.us16.list-manage.com/track/click?u=fca059ee1610bb87f1c71c9b4&id=0eebbe573e&e=73970861c6


Gauteng City-Region Observatory (GCRO) Occasional Paper #13: Where do we draw the line? Graffiti in Maboneg, Johannesburg.

Authors: Alexandra Parker, Samkelisiwe Khanyile and Kate Joseph

https://gcro.us16.list-manage.com/track/click?u=fca059ee1610bb87f1c71c9b4&id=b5ccbf138e&e=73970861c6


Alice Nikuze, Richard Sliuzas, Johannes Flacke & Martin van Maarseveen (2019). Livelihood impacts of displacement and resettlement on informal households - A case study from Kigali, Rwanda, Habitat International, Volume 86, 2019, Pages 38-47

Abstract:

Cities in Sub-Saharan Africa are undergoing massive socio-spatial transformations. Many old inner-city neighbourhoods are being demolished to give way to modern commercial and residential developments, and generally, to a more modern living environment. These ambitions often lead to manifold displacement and resettlement projects that affect the livelihoods of millions of people, including many from informal settlements. Given the novelty of urban space transformations in Sub-Saharan African countries, empirical research on the impacts on affected urban households is rare. Based on research conducted in Kigali, Rwanda, this paper discusses livelihood impacts, of urban redevelopment and disaster risk mitigation induced resettlement projects, on affected informal settlement households. This contribution draws on interviews and focus group discussions undertaken with both households to be displaced and resettled households, as well as interviews with key informants during fieldwork. The findings highlight that, irrespective of potential opportunities of resettlement projects to deliver improved housing to poor informal households, most displaced informal households in Kigali endure several adverse impacts on their physical, financial, social, and human livelihood assets. While previous studies narrowed displacement impacts to post-relocation impacts, this research shows that affected informal households also endure significant adverse livelihood impacts in the pre-relocation stage. Uncertainties during the pre-relocation phase are significant causes of impoverishment risks among the households likely to be displaced. Accurate and detailed information of the resettlement projects need to be communicated in the early stage of the process to avoid the unnecessary impoverishment risks of affected households. Clear transparent guidelines on entitlements and compensation for each displacement type need to be disclosed and discussed with affected communities. We conclude that an understanding of livelihood impacts in both the pre- and post-relocation stages offers a holistic conceptualisation, which is required to mitigate impoverishment risks and to protect and improve the livelihoods of affected households throughout the entire relocation process.

Keywords: Urban development; Disaster risk; Induced displacement; Resettlement; Livelihood impacts; Informal settlements; Master plan; Kigali

Download full text (pdf): https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0197397518309330


Stéphanie Dos Santos, Jean-Paul Peumi & Abdramane Soura (2019). Risk factors of becoming a disaster victim. The flood of September 1st, 2009, in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), Habitat International, Volume 86, 2019, Pages 81-90

Abstract

In light of the expected growing natural hazards and the continued growth of urban populations, there is concern that the vulnerability of a significant portion of the urban African population will increase. The objective of the paper is to analyze factors associated with the status of “disaster victim” in Ouagadougou, the capital-city of Burkina Faso. On September 1st, 2009, this city experienced torrential rainfall leading to water runoffs and floods. Over 180,000 people were severely affected, about 41 people died and 33,172 houses completely destroyed. The data availability from the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System, especially characteristics of population dwellings before the flood, grant the opportunity to address the impact of this event among the different social groups. Modeling data with logistic regressions, the results reinforce the idea that the main cause of disaster is not hazards. Indeed, natural disaster amplify urban inequities given the role playing by variables related to extreme poverty (no sanitation, no electricity) as determinant factors. Discussion highlights how some households inhabitants make the reasoned choice of gradually reoccupying their plots, although aware of risks. In Sub-Saharan Africa, early warning system for floods should be seen as essential in urban settings.

Download full text (pdf): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2019.03.005


Felix S.K. Agyemang, Elisabete Silva & Michael Poku-Boansi (2019). Understanding the urban spatial structure of Sub-Saharan African cities using the case of urban development patterns of a Ghanaian city-region, Habitat International, Volume 85, 2019, Pages 21-33

Abstract

Cities in Sub-Saharan Africa are undergoing massive spatial transformation owing to rapid urbanization. For many cities in the Global North, Latin America and Asia, spatial transformation has been traditionally characterised by a shift from monocentric to polycentric urban patterns. In the case of Sub-Saharan Africa, however, it is unclear whether the evolving spatial structure of cities conform to or are explained by existing urban geography models. This paper pursues twofold objectives: one, examines the evolution of the spatial structure of a Sub-Saharan African city-region and its relationship with mainstream urban geography models; and, two, explores the urban planning and policy implications of the spatial transformation. The study draws on spatially explicit data from Kumasi City-Region in Ghana, which is analysed with a set of spatial metrics and an urban growth model. The results indicate that, while the city-region's urban spatial structure before the turn of the Twenty-first century largely conforms to the traditional monocentric model, it is increasingly becoming deconcentrated and dispersive, which suggests a likely pending phase of coalescence in a stochastic fractal urban growth process. Contrary to what is observed in other parts of the world, the declining monocentricity has not transformed into a polycentric urban structure, rather, urban growth is becoming amorphous. There is high level of development spontaneity that cast an image of a city-region that is charting inefficient and unsustainable spatial development path. Urban scholars would have to transcend the frontiers of existing urban structure models to better depict the spatial evolution of sub-Saharan African cities like Kumasi City-Region, while Policy makers need to re-position the Ghanaian planning system to be more influential in delivering sustainable development patterns.

Keywords: Urbanization; Urban spatial structure; Urban growth; Monocentricity; Urban transformation; Ghana


Book Title: Spatial Planning in Service Delivery - Towards Distributive Justice in South Africa (2019)

Authors: Hangwelani Hope Magidimisha and Lovemore Chipungu
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

The book:

  • Employs both quantitative and qualitative analysis in a consideration of the past, present, and future for a holistic perspective;
  • Questions South Africa's development ideology and whether it meets the mandates of its citizenry through participatory and collaborative means;
  • Shows how spatial planning can be used as a tool in the South African context to mitigate inequality

eBook ISBN 978-3-030-19850-3
DOI 10.1007/978-3-030-19850-3
Hardcover ISBN 978-3-030-19849-7

https://www.palgrave.com/gp/book/9783030198497


Stefania Almazán-Casali & Jose F. Alfaro, Steve Sikra (2019). Exploring household willingness to participate in solid waste collection services in Liberia, Habitat International,
Volume 84, 2019, Pages 57-64

Abstract

Liberia faces increasing challenges with solid waste management as more than 70% of households abandon their waste in unauthorized sites. Urbanization and population growth will increase Liberia's need to develop an effective waste management system. This study performed 240 household surveys in Paynesville, Liberia, to explore residents' waste disposal practices and their satisfaction with waste collection services. Survey results point to improvement opportunities and some dissatisfaction with existing household services. Burning or burying of waste were common disposal practices and few households separate or recycle waste. The study included a choice experiment (CE) to assess households' valuation of specific attributes of waste collection services. Estimates of a mixed logistical model suggest that households highly value having waste collected at home and negatively value separating waste. These findings highlight the potential for improving Liberia's solid waste management by structuring reliable services around household collection.


Sogen Moodley (2019). Defining city-to-city learning in southern Africa: Exploring practitioner sensitivities in the knowledge transfer process, Habitat International,
Volume 85, 2019, Pages 34-40

Abstract

Cities have revived a tendency to look to other cities in a conscious attempt to learn, adapt or adopt innovative practices in the field of urban planning and development. Much has been published on how such cities learn from each other in the global North, as well as some in Latin America and Asia, but little empirical research is available relating to sub-Saharan Africa. As a result, not much is known about the perception of practitioners in this part of the world, of prevailing international learning nomenclature, or of their understanding and interpretation of the dynamics of associated complex learning processes. This article focuses on a case study of the international United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) “mentorship programme” involving the eThekwini Municipality in Durban, South Africa, and the cities of Otjiwarongo in Namibia and Mzuzu in Malawi. Instead of a single, unified and coherent conceptualisation of city-to-city learning, the study unearthed a messy and complex picture of multiple understandings of this concept among learning stakeholders. Crucially, it exposed strong resistance from African practitioners to the UCLG learning terminology of “city mentorship”, yielding a call to policy-makers for greater sensitivity about definitions of key constructs. Whilst making the case for city-to-city learning, it provides new insights that can contribute to more nuanced understandings of the complexity and the politics of knowledge transfer among cities.


Francesco Chiodelli & Anna Mazzolini (2019) Inverse Planning in the Cracks of Formal Land Use Regulation: The Bottom-Up Regularisation of Informal Settlements in Maputo, Mozambique, Planning Theory & Practice, 20:2, 165-181

Abstract

This paper focuses on a case of ‘non-public planning’ in an informal neighbourhood of Maputo, Mozambique. Here, several residents undertook some planning duties (e.g. drawing up a detailed plan) in order to regularise their informal dwellings in lieu of the Municipality, due to its inertia. This was an attempt to deal with the shortcomings of urban planning in Maputo, not by flouting the system, but by remoulding it and creating a sort of alternative formality. The detailed analysis of this case is an opportunity for critical reflection on the risks, potentialities and inherent limits of such a form of non-public planning in Mozambique, which we label ‘inverse planning’.

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14649357.2019.1604980


International Journal of E-Planning Research (IJEPR)
Volume 8, Issue 3, July - September 2019
Published: Quarterly in Print and Electronically
ISSN: 2160-9918; EISSN: 2160-9926;
Published by IGI Global Publishing, Hershey, USA
www.igi-global.com/ijepr
Editor-in-Chief: Carlos Nunes Silva (University of Lisbon, Portugal)

Editorial Preface

  • Modelling Urban Environments, Transdisciplinary Inquiry, Participation Tools, and Information Security in Urban E-Planning
    Carlos Nunes Silva

Research Articles

  • Modelling Urban Environments to Promote Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity: Case of Stockholm (pages 1-12)
    Anna Kaczorowska, Meta Berghauser Pont
  • A Transdisciplinary Inquiry Into Sustainable Automobility Transitions: The Case of an Urban Enclave in Cape Town (pages 13-37)
    Elizabeth Henshilwood, Mark Swilling, Marjorie L. Naidoo
  • Guiding Informed Choices on Participation Tools in Spatial Planning: An E-Decision Support System (pages 38-61)
    Giorgos Somarakis, Anastasia Stratigea
  • Raising Information Security Awareness in the Field of Urban and Regional Planning (pages 62-86)
    Margit Christa Scholl

Book Review

  • United Nations E-Government Survey 2018: Gearing E-Government to Support Transformation Towards Sustainable and Resilient Societies
    Carlos Nunes Silva

Conference Report

  • International Conference ‘Fifty Years of Local Governance', IGU Commission Geography of Governance, University of Lisbon, Portugal, September 4 - 6 2018
    Carlos Nunes Silva

Mackay, H. (2019). Food sources and access strategies in Ugandan secondary cities: an intersectional analysis. Environment and Urbanization (First Published May 15, 2019)

Abstract

This article arises from an interest in African urbanization and in the food, farming and nutritional transitions that some scholars present as integral to urban life. The paper investigates personal urban food environments, food sources and access strategies in two secondary Ugandan cities, Mbale and Mbarara, drawing on in-depth interviews and applying an intersectional lens. Food sources were similar across dimensions of difference but food access strategies varied. My findings indicate that socioeconomic circumstance (class) was the most salient influence shaping differences in daily food access strategies. Socioeconomic status, in turn, interacted with other identity aspects, an individual’s asset base and broader structural inequalities in influencing urban food environments. Rural land and rural connections, or multispatiality, were also important for food-secure urban lives. The work illuminates geometries of advantage and disadvantage within secondary cities, and highlights similarities and differences between food environments in these cities and Uganda’s capital, Kampala.

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https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0956247819847346


Dan E. Chamberlain; Dominic A. W. Henry; Chevonne Reynolds; Enrico Caprio & Arjun Amar (2019). The relationship between wealth and biodiversity: A test of the Luxury Effect on bird species richness in the developing world. Global Change Biology, First published: 11 May 2019, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14682

Abstract

The Luxury Effect hypothesizes a positive relationship between wealth and biodiversity within urban areas. Understanding how urban development, both in terms of socio‐economic status and the built environment, affects biodiversity can contribute to the sustainable development of cities, and may be especially important in the developing world where current growth in urban populations is most rapid. We tested the Luxury Effect by analysing bird species richness in relation to income levels, as well as human population density and urban cover, in landscapes along an urbanization gradient in South Africa. The Luxury Effect was supported in landscapes with lower urbanization levels in that species richness was positively correlated with income level where urban cover was relatively low. However, the effect was reversed in highly urbanized landscapes, where species richness was negatively associated with income level. Tree cover was also positively correlated with species richness, although it could not explain the Luxury Effect. Species richness was negatively related to urban cover, but there was no association with human population density. Our model suggests that maintaining green space in at least an equal proportion to the built environment is likely to provide a development strategy that will enhance urban biodiversity, and with it, the positive benefits that are manifest for urban dwellers. Our findings can form a key contribution to a wider strategy to expand urban settlements in a sustainable way to provide for the growing urban population in South Africa, including addressing imbalances in environmental justice across income levels and racial groups.


Adelekan, I. O. (2019). Urban dynamics, everyday hazards and disaster risks in Ibadan, Nigeria. Environment and Urbanization. (First Published May 13, 2019 ) https://doi.org/10.1177/0956247819844738

Abstract

Many cities in sub-Saharan Africa lack official records of deaths and of serious illnesses and injuries from everyday hazards and disaster events at all scales. This is a major limitation to effective planning for risk reduction. This paper seeks to fill some of these data gaps for the city of Ibadan, drawing on newspaper reports, hospital records, and databases or records of government departments for the period 2000–2015. It presents what can be learned about risks from these sources and discusses how the social, economic and political structures at the national, city and locality levels contribute to the most serious urban risks, as well as how these drive the process of risk accumulation, especially for vulnerable groups. Excluding public health risks for which data are scarce and incomplete, road traffic accidents, crime, violence and flooding constitute the most serious hazards in the city of Ibadan.


Turok, I. (2019). Cities as platforms for progress: Local drivers of Rwanda’s success. Local Economy, 34(3), 221–227. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269094219852600

Abstract

Rwanda’s has made remarkable all-round progress over the last 25 years. This is usually attributed to a determined national government under single-minded leadership. This paper draws attention to two local drivers of Rwanda’s socio-economic development: community participation and a positive approach to urbanisation. Popular involvement in communal projects has helped to build and maintain many useful public facilities. It has also fostered social solidarity and dialogue between citizens and public officials. The positive urban policy has helped to create more efficient and liveable cities, which are driving economic prosperity and human development. Nevertheless, there is scope for greater consistency and alignment between top-down and bottom-up processes in order to improve the suitability and responsiveness of national policies and practices to grassroots realities.


Laurence Marfaing (2019) Dakar ville moderne: la médiation des entrepreneurs sénégalais en Chine, Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue canadienne des études africaines, 53:1, 89-107, DOI: 10.1080/00083968.2018.1548365

Abstract

The early 2000s marked a decisive turning point in the development of Dakar due, on the one hand, to the impact of important investments by the Senegalese government in the construction of new urban infrastructure and, on the other, to the implementation by the city of a decidedly modern town-planning scheme. In a context in which “China-Africa” and the role of China in this transformation pervaded both the media and research, the aim of this article concerns the role of African entrepreneurs who work in China. The latter “translate” their experiences of China in their daily routine and their way of life, and their imports of manufactured goods facilitate the social transformations that are influencing the emergence of Dakar as a modern city and its appropriation by the Dakarois.

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00083968.2018.1548365?needAccess=true

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